Forced responses: Feb 2020 « RealClimate – RealClimate

zebra says:

Inverters—Demonic Devices Destroying The Proper Order Of Things

This is from the reference Michael Sweet gave. EE’s who are not stuck in the past know this stuff, but this is pretty clear for laypersons. (My bolds):

“The inverters of wind, solar and batteries already provide reactive power for voltage control and can provide the other ancillary services, including virtual or synthetic inertia, by programming the functionality into the inverter software.

Inverters are much more flexible than mechanics-bound synchronous generators and can change their output with high accuracy within milliseconds. The reason that wind and solar plants have only recently been providing these services is that before (i.e. at lower renewable penetration) there was no need, and no system operators required it. Now that more ancillary services are being written into grid codes [148], manufacturers are providing such capabilities in their equipment.

Frequency control concepts for inverters that follow a stiff external grid frequency and adjust their active power output to compensate for any frequency deviations are already offered by manufacturers [149]. Next generation ‘grid-forming’ inverters will also be able to work in weak grids without a stiff frequency, albeit at the cost of increasing the inverter current rating (e.g. by 20–50%).

A survey of different frequency-response technologies in the Irish context can be found in [150]. Recent work for National Grid [151], [152] shows that with 25% of inverters operating as Virtual Synchronous Machines (VSM), the system can survive the most severe faults even when approaching 100% non-synchronous penetration.

The literature in the control theory community on the design and stability of grid-forming inverters in power systems is substantial and growing, and includes both extensive simulations and tests in the field.”

Gosh, daddy, does this mean the grid isn’t going to explode if we install solar panels?


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